|Hormones are substances secreted from a tissue (mainly endocrine glands) that exert a biologic response on itself or other cells, and affect almost all aspects of human function. Hormones control growth and development, reproduction, sexual characteristics, blood sugar levels
and influence the way the body uses and stores energy. Hormones regulate the digestive system, growth, hunger, thirst, blood glucose and cholesterol levels, fat burning and storage, absorption and excretion, internal clocks such as day and night cycles, menstrual cycles, and sex drive.
Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) - Antidiuretic hormone affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules. Antidiuretic hormone causes kidneys to retain water and, along with aldosterone, helps control blood pressure
Corticotropin (ACTH) - ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to release glucocorticoid hormones. These hormones are anti-inflammatory in nature, reducing edema and other aspects of inflammation. Corticotropin controls the production and secretion of hormones by the adrenal cortex.
Luteinizing hormone - Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone control reproductive functions, including the production of sperm and semen, egg maturation, and menstrual cycles; control male and female sexual characteristics (including hair distribution, muscle formation, skin texture and thickness, voice, and perhaps even personality traits).
Oxytocin - Oxytocin helps to cause labor and contractions in the body when the body is receptive to its influence. It has stimulant effects on the smooth muscle of the uterus and mammary glands. Oxytocin is involved in reproductive behaviour in both men and women.
Prolactin - Prolactin is involved in breast development and regulates the production of breast milk. Prolactin contributes to the development of the fully mature nonpregnant gland. It also has hormone regulating functions during the menstrual cycle.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone - Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates the release of thyroid hormone from thyroglobulin. It also stimulates the growth of thyroid follicular cells.
Parathyroid hormone - Parathyroid hormone controls the distribution of calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone also functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting.
Thyroid hormone - Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolic processes and mental and physical development. Thyroid hormone regulates the rate at which the body functions (metabolic rate).
Aldosterone - Aldosterone is responsible for preserving salts in our body, keeping fluids in, and maintaining our blood pressure. It helps regulate the body's electrolyte balance by acting on the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR).
Cortisol - Cortisol is important for maintaining blood sugar levels, maintenance of body fluids and electrolytes, and protecting the body from stress. Cortisol has anti-inflammatory action, maintains blood sugar level, blood pressure, and muscle strength.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) - Dehydroepiandrosterone is a steroid precursor produced by the adrenal gland and converted to testosterone or the estrogens by the body's tissues. DHEA appears to facilitate improved cholesterol profiles, loss of body fat, increased muscle gain.
Epinephrine - Epinephrine helps the liver release glucose (sugar) and limit the release of insulin. It also makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure. It is the most common neurotransmitter in the nervous system, in particular at ganglion cells of the sympathetic nervous system.
Insulin - Insulin is necessary for glucose to be able to enter the cells of the body and be used for energy. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood by moving it into the cells, where it can be used by the body for energy.
Erythropoietin - Erythropoietin is important for the normal production of new red blood cells. Erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell production.
Renin - Renin is an enzyme secreted by the kidneys that converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin II. Renin is part of a very complicated biochemical pathway in the body called the renin-angiotensin system. This is a necessary system since it works to elevate or decrease blood pressure in times of need.
Angiotensin - Angiotensin is a family of peptides (smaller than proteins) that act as vasoconstrictors to narrow blood vessels. Angiotensin controls blood pressure.
Estrogen - Estrogen stimulates the development of secondary sexual characteristics and induces menstruation in women. Estrogen is important for the maintenance of normal brain function and development of nerve cells.
Progesterone - Progesterone, along with estrogen, prepares the uterus (womb) for a possible pregnancy each month and supports the fertilized egg if conception occurs. Progesterone also helps prepare the breasts for milk production and breastfeeding.
Testosterone - Testosterone stimulates blood flow, growth in certain tissues, and the secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone is required for sperm production, the development of the male reproductive organs, and the emergence of male secondary sexual characteristics.
Cholecystokinin - Cholecystokinin is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. It also acts as a hunger suppresant.
Leptin - Leptin plays a role in body weight regulation by acting on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and burn fat stored in adipose tissue. Leptin works by inhibiting the actions of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide and by increasing the actions of alpha-melanocortin stimulating hormone.