Vitamin supplements guide   Vitamins & health supplements guide

 
Taurine quick review
Description: a non-essential sulfur-containing amino acid, synthesized from methionine and cysteine.
Health benefits: the body's water soluble anti-oxidant, and inhibitory neurotransmitter, protects many of the body's organs against toxicity and oxidative stress due to various substances.

Sources & dosage: brewer's yeast, eggs and other dairy products, fish and red meat. Daily dosage ranges from 500-1500 mgs per day.
Deficiency symptoms: symptoms of taurine deficiency include anxiety, epilepsy, hyperactivity and poor brain function.
 
Taurine 1000 by Jarrow Formulas
Taurine i used to quench hypochlorite secreted by leukocyte immune cells. Taurine also aids in osmoregulation (maintenance of proper concentrations of ions) inside the cell. Taurine's other biological functions include cellular growth, membrane stabilization, sperm motility, bile acid conjugation and neurotransmission. Taurine may also benefit athletic performance as it acts as an insulin mimetic, thereby allowing for better glucose deposition into muscles. Click here for more information.
 

Taurine


Taurine is a non-essential sulfur-containing amino acid that functions with glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid as a neuroinhibitory transmitter. Taurine, along with methionine, cystine and cysteine, is a sulfur-containing amino acid. Unlike true amino acids, taurine is not incorporated into proteins, and is one of the most abundant free amino acids in many tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, and the brain. In the body, taurine is synthesized from the essential amino acid methionine and its related non-essential amino acid cysteine. Taurine is an end product of l-cysteine metabolism and the principal free intracellular amino acid in many tissues of humans and other animal species. Taurine is the second most abundant amino acid in the muscle amino acid pool (after glutamine). Taurine is important in the visual pathways, the brain and nervous system, cardiac function, and it is a conjugator of bile acids. Taurine is incorporated into one of the most abundant bile acids, chenodeoxychloic acid where it serves to emulsify dietary lipids in the intestine, promoting digestion. Basically, its function is to facilitate the passage of sodium, potassium and possibly calcium and magnesium ions into and out of cells and to electrically stabilize the cell membranes.

 

Taurine functions, uses, and health benefits


Taurine is the body's water soluble anti-oxidant, and inhibitory neurotransmitter. The major antioxidant activity of taurine derives from its ability to scavenge the reactive oxygen species hypochlorite. Taurine has putative hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, antiatherogenic and detoxifying activities. Taurine may also suppress peroxidation of membrane lipoproteins by other reactive
oxygen species. Taurine's other biological functions include cellular growth, membrane stabilization, sperm motility, bile acid conjugation and neurotransmission. Taurine works in electrically active tissues to stabilize cell membranes. Taurine aids the movement of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in and out of cells and thus helps generate nerve impulses.

Due to its ability to neutralize hypochlorous acid, a potent oxidizing substance, taurine is able to attenuate DNA damage caused by aromatic amine compounds. Taurine is a potent neuroprotectant, protecting against glutamate excitotoxicity, cerebral ischemia, oxidative stress, and the buildup of toxins (including carbon tetrachloride and ammonia). Taurine protects many of the body's organs against toxicity and oxidative stress due to various substances. Taurine neutralizes the toxin hypochlorous acid, thus protecting from DNA damage. As an antioxidant, taurine is used to quench hypochlorite secreted by leukocyte immune cells. Taurine also aids in osmoregulation (maintenance of proper concentrations of ions) inside the cell. Taurine may also benefit athletic performance as it acts as an insulin mimetic, thereby allowing for better glucose deposition into muscles.

Taurine plays an important role in numerous physiological functions. While conjugation of bile acids is perhaps its best-known function, this accounts for only a small proportion of the total body pool of taurine in humans. Other metabolic actions of taurine include: detoxification, membrane stabilization, osmoregulation, and modulation of cellular calcium levels. Taurine is important in conjugating bile acids to form water-soluble bile salts. Bile acids function as a detergent for emulsification and absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Taurine conjugation of bile acids has a significant effect on the solubility of cholesterol, increasing its excretion, and administration of taurine has been shown to reduce serum cholesterol levels.

Taurine may be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure, including cardiovascular diseases, hypercholesterolemia, epilepsy and other seizure disorders, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, hepatic disorders, alcoholism, and cystic fibrosis. Taurine supplementation has been shown to decrease the severity of steatorrhea associated with cystic fibrosis. Taurine helps gallbladder function by forming tauracholate from bile acids, tauracholate helps increase cholesterol elimination in the bile. Taurine helps regulate the heart beat, maintain cell membrane stability, and prevent brain cell over-activity. Taurine fights cellular troublemakers that can damage the heart. Taurine comprises over 50 percent of the total free amino acid pool of the heart. Taurine helps regulate the contraction and pumping action of the heart muscle and it helps regulate blood pressure and platelet aggregation. It has a positive inotropic action on cardiac tissue. Taurine has potential in the treatment of arrhythmias, especially arrhythmias secondary to ischemia.

 

Dietary sources of taurine


Taurine is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver. Taurine is found mostly in meat and fish. Good sources of taurine include brewer's yeast, eggs and other dairy products, fish and red meat.

 

Taurine dosage, intake


Typical daily dosage ranges from 500-1500 mgs per day. For the treatment of various medical conditions, doctors typically recommend 1.5 grams to as much as 6 grams or more per day. Follow doctor’s order for proper use.

 

Taurine deficiency


Low levels of taurine are associated with various pathological lesions, including cardiomyopathy, retinal degeneration, and growth retardation, especially if deficiency occurs during development. Symptoms of taurine deficiency include anxiety, epilepsy, hyperactivity and poor brain function. Low levels of the amino acid cysteine and vitamin B6 can cause taurine deficiency. Most people, including vegans (vegetarians who eat no dairy or eggs) do not need taurine supplements.

 

Toxicity, side effects, interactions, and contraindications


Taurine is considered safe when used in accordance with proper dosing guidelines. Taurine may interact with certain chemotherapy medications. Be sure to consult with a qualified health care provider before taking taurine supplements.