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Lipase quick review
Description: enzymes secreted by the pancreas into the small intestines, including pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase, lysosomal lipase, hepatic lipase, gastric lipase, endothelial lipase, and phospholipases.
Health benefits: necessary for the absorption and digestion of nutrients in the intestines, involved in diverse biological processes ranging from routine metabolism of dietary triglycerides to cell signaling and inflammation.
 
Jarro-Zymes Plus
Jarro-Zymes Plus contains porcine pancreatic enzymes because their composition is similar to that of human pancreatic enzymes and are superior to vegetable enzymes. Alpha galactosidase is produced by single cell fermentation and facilitates digestion of legumes. Porcine pancreas contains a complex of natural enzymes including Protease, Amylase, Lipase, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Esterase, Peptidase, Nuclease, Elastase, Collagenase. Click here for more information.
 

Lipase


Lipase is an enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestines. The bulk of dietary lipids are a class called triacylglycerols and are attacked by lipases to yield simple fatty acids and glycerol, molecules which can permeate the membranes of the stomach and small intestine for use by the body. The lipases comprise a family of enzymes with the capacity to catalyze hydrolysis of compounds including phospholipids, mono-, di-, and triglycerides, and acyl-coa thioesters. Lipases are ubiquitous throughout living organisms, and genes encoding lipases are even present in certain viruses. Most of the body’s lipase is manufactured in the pancreas, although some of it is secreted in the saliva, as well. Along with lipase, the pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon, hormones that the body needs to break down sugar in the bloodstream. Other pancreatic enzymes include amylase, which breaks down amylose (a form of starch) into its sugar building blocks, and protease, which breaks down protein into single amino acids. Several different types of lipases are found in the human body, including pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase, lysosomal lipase, hepatic lipase, gastric lipase, endothelial lipase, as well as various different phospholipases. Different lipases are distinguished by their substrate specificity, tissue distribution and subcellular localization.

 

Lipase functions and health benefits


Lipases are important enzymes which have many current uses, including as reagents in food preparation processes, industrial degradative processes, crop engineering and even as treatments for several human diseases (e.g., indigestion and heartburn
(e.g., for pancreatic insufficiency), secondary cystic fibrosis, Celiac disease, Crohn's disease, obesity, etc.). Lipase catalyzes the breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids. As with amylase, lipase appears in the blood following damage to the pancreatic acinar cells. Some lipases work within the interior spaces of living cells to degrade lipids. Pancreatic lipases have roles in the metabolism, absorption and transport of lipids throughout the body. Lipases are involved in diverse biological processes ranging from routine metabolism of dietary triglycerides to cell signaling and inflammation.

Lipase is an enzyme necessary for the absorption and digestion of nutrients in the intestines. This digestive enzyme is responsible for breaking down lipids (fats), in particular triglycerides, which are fatty substances in the body that come from fat in the diet. Triglycerides make up the predominant type of lipid in the human diet. Prior to absorption in the small intestine, triglycerides are broken down to monoglycerides and free fatty acids to allow solubilization and emulsification before micelle formation in conjunction with bile acids and phospholipids secreted by the liver. Secreted lipases that act within the lumen include lingual, gastric and pancreatic lipases, each having the ability to act under appropriate pH conditions. Modulating the activity of these enzymes has the potential to alter the processing and absorption of dietary fats.

The enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase plays a vital role in the mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue by controlling the rate of lipolysis of stored triglycerides. Free fatty acids derived from adipose tissue triglycerides are the most important fuel in mammals, providing more than half the caloric needs during fasting. Lipases have an important role in lipid transport and lipoprotein metabolism. Lipoprotein lipase functions as a homodimer and has the dual functions of triglyceride hydrolase and ligand/bridging factor for receptor-mediated lipoprotein uptake.

 

Diseases related with lipase levels


At least three human genetic diseases are caused by mutations in lipase genes. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene encoding lipoprotein lipase. Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD) and Wolman Disease are both caused by mutations in the gene encoding lysosomal lipase, also referred to as lysosomal acid lipase (LAL or LIPA) or acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase. CESD may not be detected until adulthood, and moderate hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatomegaly may be the only clinical signs. Wolman disease occurs in infancy and is nearly always fatal before the age of 1 year. Hepatosplenomegaly, steatorrhea, abdominal distension, adrenal calcification, and failure to thrive are observed in the first weeks of life. People with pancreatic insufficiency and cystic fibrosis frequently require supplemental lipase and other enzymes. Lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase are bound to act at the endothelial surfaces of extrahepatic and hepatic tissues, respectively. Deficiencies of these enzymes are associated with pathological levels of circulating lipoprotein particles. Severe mutations that cause LPL deficiency result in type I hyperlipoproteinemia, while less extreme mutations in LPL are linked to many disorders of lipoprotein metabolism.
 

Lipase test


Measuring blood levels of lipase will help screen for disease of the pancreas. The lipase test is a blood test performed to determine the serum level of a specific protein (enzyme) involved in digestion. The lipase test is most often used in evaluating inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), but it is also useful in diagnosing kidney failure, intestinal obstruction, mumps, and peptic ulcers. In general, normal results are usually less than 200 units/L (triolein methods by titration or turbidimetry). Higher-than-normal amounts of lipase may be found in the blood when the pancreas is damaged or when the tube (duct) leading from the pancreas to the beginning of the small intestine (duodenum) is blocked. Increased lipase levels are found in acute pancreatitis, chronic relapsing pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer.