Vitamin supplements guide   Vitamins & health supplements guide

Tyrosine quick review
Description: an aromatic amino acid, derived from phenylalanine by hydroxylation in the para position.
Health benefits: used to treat mood enhancement, appetite suppression, and growth hormone stimulation.

Sources & dosage: soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, lima beans, and sesame seeds.
Deficiency symptoms: muscle loss, weaknes, low protein levels, mood disorders and liver damage.
Tyrosine by Vitabase
Tyrosine is needed to make epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. Since these chemicals help regulate mood, a deficiency in tyrosine has been associated with depression. Tyrosine also is involved in making melanin, the pigment responsible for hair and skin color. The adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands, which produce and regulate hormones, also rely on tyrosine for proper functioning. Research has shown that tyrosine functions as an adaptogen. Adaptogens help the body cope with stress and return it to a normal balance. Tyrosine by Vitabase is manuafactured according to the highest pharmaceutical standards and uses only the best quality raw ingredients. Click here for more information.


Tyrosine, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. L-tyrosine is synthesized from phenylalanine, another amino acid. Tyrosine is also an aromatic amino acid and is derived from phenylalanine by hydroxylation in the para position. While tyrosine is hydrophobic, it is significantly more soluble that is phenylalanine. The phenolic hydroxyl of tyrosine is significantly more acidic than are the aliphatic hydroxyls of either serine or threonine, having a pKa of about 9.8 in polypeptides. Tyrosine is a precursor of the adrenal hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and the thyroid hormones, including thyroxine. L-tyrosine is converted by skin cells into melanin, the dark pigment that protects against the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Thyroid hormones, which have a role in almost every process in the body, also contain tyrosine as part of their structure. As with other amino acids, several vitamins and minerals enhance tyrosine's absorption into the body.


Tyrosine functions, uses, and health benefits

L-tyrosine, through its effect on neurotransmitters, is used to treat conditions including mood enhancement, appetite suppression,
and growth hormone stimulation. In addition, tyrosine is reported to have an antioxidant effect, which may protect people from cancer development, coronary heart disease, and aging. Tyrosine appears to prevent the decline in various aspects of performance and mood associated with many kinds of acute stress, and may prove useful in improving performance in situations where performance is compromised by stress. Tyrosine may act as an adaptogen, helping the body adapt to and cope with the effects of physical or psychological stress by minimizing the symptoms brought on by stress. Tyrosine is involved in the synthesis of enkephalins (pronounced en-keff-a-lins), substances that have pain-relieving effects. Tyrosine supplementation may be used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, because tyrosine can make l-dopa which is used directly to treat Parkinson's disease. Tyrosine aids in the the production of melanin (pigment responsible for hair and skin color) and in the functions of the adrenal, thryroid, and pituitary glands. Tyrosine appears to be a successful addition to conventional treatment for cocaine abuse and withdrawal. It may be used in conjunction with tryptophan and imipramine (an antidepressant). When taken properly, l-tyrosine can assist a sluggish thyroid and aid the dieter in losing excess, unwanted pounds. People born with the genetic condition phenylketonuria (PKU) are unable to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. Mental retardation and other severe disabilities can result. While dietary phenylalanine restriction prevents these problems, it also leads to low tyrosine levels in many (but not all) people with PKU. Tyrosine supplementation may be beneficial in some people with PKU, though the evidence is conflicting.

Dietary sources of tyrosine

Dietary sources of l-tyrosine are principally derived from animal and vegetable proteins. Natural sources include soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds.


Tyrosine dosage, intake

The standard dose of tyrosine is 1000 milligrams whenever a physical or mental boost is needed. Tyrosine supplements should be taken at least 30 minutes before meals, divided into three daily doses. They should also be taken with a multivitamin-mineral complex because vitamins B6, B9 (folate), and copper help convert L-tyrosine into important brain chemicals.


Tyrosine deficiency

Tyrosine deficiency may cause a variety of conditions, including muscle loss, weaknes, low protein levels, mood disorders and liver damage. Low levels have been associated with hypothyroidism (low thyroid function), low body temperature, low blood pressure, and depression. Low levels of tyrosine have been associated with hypothyroidism. Symptoms of tyrosine deficiency can also include low blood pressure, low body temperature (such as cold hands and feet), and restless leg syndrome. Some people affected by PKU are deficient in tyrosine.


Toxicity, side effects, interactions, and contraindications

Total amount of tyrosine taken in one day should never exceed 12,000 mg. Tyrosine should not be taken at the same time as levodopa, a medication used to treat Parkinson's disease because levodopa may interfere with the absorption of tyrosine. Tyrosine may elevate blood pressure and should not be used with over-the-counter dietary medications. L-tyrosine is contraindicated in those taking non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Migraine headaches and gastrointestinal upset may occur after taking supplements.