Vitamin supplements guide   Vitamins & health supplements guide

 
Magnesium quick review
Biological functions: needed to produce cellular energy and nerve and muscle message transmission, intimately interlocked biologically with calcium.
Health benefits: used by the body to help maintain muscles, nerves, and bones; also used in energy metabolism and protein synthesis.
Deficiency symptoms: agitation and anxiety, irritability, diarrhea, generalized muscle spasticity, paresthesias, abnormal heart rhythms, confusion.

Sources & dosage: tofu, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, wheat bran, soybean flour, almonds, cashews, pine nuts, and black walnuts.

Side efffects: high levels of magnesium in the blood can lead to heart problems or an inability to breathe, especially in people with kidney disease.
 
Calcium & Magnesium by Vitabase
Two vital elements for good health are calcium and magnesium, yet studies show that many Americans do not get the magnesium they need from their diets while nearly half fail to get the needed calcium. Calcium & Magnesium by Vitabase contains optimum 2:1 calcium to magnesium ratio. Also included in this formula are Vitamin D, Magnesium, Boron and Betaine Hydrochloride. Click here for more information.
 

Magnesium supplements


Magnesium is an essential element which influences many enzymes needed to produce cellular energy and nerve and muscle message transmission. It affects nervous, muscular and cardiovascular systems. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body and is essential to good health. In human it is found in bones, teeth, and red blood cells, magnesium activates many enzyme systems (such as those involved in protein digestion and energy production). The body takes in magnesium from the diet and excretes it in urine and stool. Magnesium in its carbonate and sulfate forms has been used for centuries as a laxative. Magnesium is intimately interlocked, biologically with calcium. Green leafy vegetables are good sources of magnesium because of their chlorophyll content. A balanced diet contains enough magnesium for the body's needs.

 

Biological functions and health benefits of magnesium


Magnesium is an essential mineral for the human body. Magnesium is used by the body to help maintain muscles, nerves, and
bones. It is also used in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Magnesium is essential in the bio-synthesis of collagen as it helps produce proteins that are later transformed into collagen. Magnesium is influences many enzymes needed to produce cellular energy and nerve and muscle message transmission. It affects nervous, muscular and cardiovascular systems. Magnesium assists in the absorption and metabolism of calcium, sodium, phosphorus and potassium. It activates enzymes, contributes to energy production, and helps regulate calcium levels as well as copper, zinc, potassium, vitamin D, and other important nutrients in the body. Magnesium is necessary for normal cell metabolism as it plays a key role in ATP production. Magnesium is required by the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesizing protein in mitochondria. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure.

Magnesium is is particularly important for maintaining a normal heart rhythm and is often used by physicians to treat irregular heartbeat (arrythmia). Magnesium may be beneficial for bladder problems in women, especially common disturbances in bladder control and the sense of "urgency." Adequate intake of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D coupled with overall proper nutrition and weight-bearing exercise throughout childhood and adulthood are the primary preventive measures for osteoporosis. Magnesium sulfate is widely used to prevent eclamptic seizures in pregnant women with hypertension.

 

Dietary sources of magnesium


Green vegetables such as spinach are good sources of magnesium because the center of the chlorophyll molecule (which gives green vegetables their color) contains magnesium. Rich sources of magnesium include tofu, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, wheat bran, Brazil nuts, soybean flour, almonds, cashews, blackstrap molasses, pumpkin and squash seeds, pine nuts, and black walnuts. Other good dietary sources of this mineral include peanuts, whole wheat flour, oat flour, beet greens, spinach, pistachio nuts, shredded wheat, bran cereals, oatmeal, bananas, and baked potatoes (with skin), chocolate, and cocoa powder. Many herbs, spices, and seaweeds supply magnesium, such as agar seaweed, coriander, dill weed, celery seed, sage, dried mustard, basil, cocoa powder, fennel seed, savory, cumin seed, tarragon, marjoram, poppy seed. The magnesium content of refined foods is usually low. Whole-wheat bread, for example, has twice as much magnesium as white bread because the magnesium-rich germ and bran are removed when white flour is processed. Water can provide magnesium, but the amount varies according to the water supply. Magnesium supplements include magnesium oxide, magnesium gluconate, magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium aspartate, magnesium orotate, magnesium arginate, magnesium pidolate and other amino acid and oligopeptide chelates of magnesium.
 

Magnesium deficiency


Symptoms of magnesium deficiency may include agitation and anxiety, irritability, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, generalized muscle spasticity, paresthesias, abnormal heart rhythms, confusion, muscle spasm and weakness, hyperventilation, insomnia, poor nail growth, and even seizures. Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weakness are early signs of magnesium deficiency. Severe magnesium deficiency can result in low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia). Type 2 diabetes is associated with low levels of magnesium in the blood. People with IBD (particularly ulcerative colitis) may have low magnesium levels. Magnesium levels have been reported to be low in those with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Magnesium deficiency is also associated with low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia).

 

Dosage, intake, recommended daily allowance (RDA)


Magnesium is generally recommended in small doses 3 to 6 times throughout the day, with a full glass of water with each dose to avoid diarrhea.

Infants birth to 6 months: 30 mg
Infants 6 months to 1 year: 75 mg
Children 1 to 3 years: 80 mg
Children 4 to 8 years: 130 mg
Children 9 to 13 years: 240 mg
Adolescent and adult males 270–400 mg
Adolescent and adult females 280–300 mg
Pregnant females 320 mg
Breast-feeding females 340–355 mg

 

Side effects, precautions, toxicity, and drug interactions


Individuals with heart or kidney disease should not take magnesium supplements. Taking too much magnesium often leads to diarrhea. Other gastrointestinal symptoms are nausea and abdominal cramping. Very high levels of magnesium in the blood can lead to heart problems or an inability to breathe, especially in people with kidney disease. Magnesium preparations taken internally may cause hypermagnesemia.Magnesium interferes with the absorption of digoxin (a heart medication), nitrofurantoin (an antibiotic), and certain anti-malarial drugs, potentially reducing their efficacy.