|Nicotinamide (niacinamide) is one of the two principal forms of the B-complex vitamin niacin. Vitamin B3 comes in two basic forms-niacin (also called nicotinic acid) and niacinamide (also called nicotinamide). Niacinamide is the amide form of nicotinic acid (niacin). Nicotinamide is a vitamin that plays an important role in the synthesis of components necessary for the production
of ATP. Nicotinamide is the biologically active form of niacin (also known as nicotinic acid). Both nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, as well as a variation on nicotinic acid, called inosital hexaniacinate, are available as supplements.
Nicotinamide, via its major metabolite NAD++ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including the production of energy, the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and steroids, signal transduction and the maintenance of the integrity of the genome. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration. It forms NADP with the addition of a phosphate group (much as ADP forms ATP). NADP is produced in the preliminary cycles of photosynthesis, and is used in the later Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. It is used in many other anabolic reactions in various organisms as well. Nicotinamide (also referred to as Vitamin B3) is believed to cause improvements in energy production due to its role as a precursor of NAD (nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide), an important molecule involved in energy metabolism. Increasing nicotinamide concentrations increase the available NAD molecules that can take part in energy metabolism, thus increasing the amount of energy available in the cell.
Niacinamide is an amine form of niacin and is important in promoting a healthy nervous system, skin, and gastrointestinal functioning. Nicotinamide is a form of vitamin B3 that may preserve and improve beta cell function. Nicotinamide may have anti-diabetogenic activity in some. It has been used in diabetes treatment and prevention. It may also have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. Nicotinamide has putatitive activity against osteoarthritis and granuloma annulare. Nicotinamide is a potent anti-inflammatory agent used in various dermatological disorders. Niacinamide enhances insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity. Evidence points to niacinamide supplements being very effective in preventing type I diabetes from progressing in some patients if given soon enough at the onset of diabetes. It does so primarily by helping restore beta cells.
Niacinamide is a form of niacin that usually does not cause a niacin flush and is often the form used in some quality nutritional supplements. The human body receives its necessary quantities of nicotinamide from two sources: diet, as described above, and by synthesizing nictonamide in the body itself. Our body is able to convert tryptophan, an amino acid regularly found in the body, into niacin. Niacin is then converted to nicotinamide, which the body uses for various purposes Niacinamide is almost always safe to take, though rare liver problems have occurred at amounts in excess of 1,000 mg per day. Symptoms of nicotinamide deficiency include rough skin, sore red eyes, cracked skin on areas exposed to the sun, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, abdominal pain and swelling, diarrhoea, depression, anxiety or dementia. Niacinamide does not have the ability to lower cholesterol.