Pantothenic acid review
• Basics: antioxidant water-soluble vitamin, known as vitamin B5, panthenol and calcium pantothenate.
• Benefits: essential for human growth, helps metabolize nutrients, manufacture antibodies and produce vitamin D, vital to the synthesis and maintenance of coenzyme A.
• Dosage: no formal RDA for pantothenic acid, generally 4 to 7 mg per day for adults.
• Sources: cheese, corn, eggs, liver, meats, peanuts, peas soybeans, brewer’s yeast, and wheat germ.
• Deficiency: vitamin B5 deficiency causes depression, personality changes, heart problems, increased risk of infections, fatigue.
• Overdose: not known to be toxic in humans.
Editor’s choice: Pantothenic Acid
Pantothenic acid is needed for the production of red blood cells as well as sex and stress-related hormones produced by the adrenal glands. Required by all cells in the body, Pantothenic acid assists the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, producing energy. Pantothenic Acid by Vitabase is manuafactured according to the highest pharmaceutical standards and uses only the best quality raw ingredients.
Click here for more information.
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5, calcium pantothenate)
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is an antioxidant water-soluble vitamin needed to break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Pantothenic acid comes in three forms, and it is alternately known as vitamin B5, panthenol and calcium pantothenate. Pantothenic acid is integral to many of the activities of enzymes in the human body. The body uses pantothenic acid to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats for energy. Pantothenic acid functions as a component of coenzyme A and phosphopantetheine, which are involved in fatty acid metabolism. This vitamin also produces numerous enzymes and helps maintain precise communication between the central nervous system and the brain.
Pantothenic acid is vital to the synthesis and maintenance of coenzyme A (CoA), a cofactor and acyl group carrier for many enzymatic processes, and acyl carrier protein, a component of the fatty acid synthase complex. Pantothenic acid is metabolized to coenzyme A via a sequence of steps. Coenzyme A is a precursor of acyl carrier protein. Coenzyme A (CoA) is involved in the metabolic release of energy from macronutrients – especially fats – from the TCA cycle, metabolism of drugs and toxins in the liver, and the synthesis of lipids, acetylcholine, steroid hormones, porphyrins, hemoglobin, and melatonin. Because of the wide variety of roles CoA plays in the body, the utilities of supplemental pantothenic acid are many.
Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which means that it cannot be stored by the body and must be replenished every day. Pantothenic acid is virtually ubiquitous. It is present in foods as diverse as poultry, soybeans, yogurt, and sweet potatoes. Pantothenic acid comes in two forms: calcium pantothenate and pantethine. The former is widely used for treating ailments from stress to heartburn, while pantethine is mainly recommended for lowering blood cholesterol levels in those who don’t respond to other natural treatments. The principal supplemental form of pantothenic acid is calcium D-pantothenate (D-calcium pantothenate). Dexpanthenol, the corresponding alcohol of pantothenic acid is also available. Dexpanthenol is used topically to promote wound healing.
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) functions, uses, and health benefits
Vitamin B5 is essential for human growth, reproduction and many normal bodily processes. Vitamin B5 helps metabolize nutrients, manufacture antibodies and produce vitamin D. It also stimulates the healing of wounds. Pantothenic acid is involved in a number of biological reactions, including the production of energy, the catabolism of fatty acids and amino acids, the synthesis of fatty acids, lipids, cholesterol and steroid hormones, and the production of both coenzyme A, and the cellular antioxidant glutathione. Vitamin B5 is critical to the manufacture of red blood cells as well as sex and stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands (small glands that sit atop of the kidneys). Supplements are sometimes used to treat symptoms of allergy and a wide range of skin conditions.
Pantothenic acid is used in the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids and some amino acids and is also used in the synthesis of coenzyme A. It is the most important component of coenzyme A, which assists in several metabolic pathways and is necessary for the transfer of fats to and from cells. Without it, fats could not be metabolized to energy. These processes include the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, the production of glucose in the body, the breakdown of fats and the production of cholesterol and certain hormones. Pantothenic acid plays a role in the synthesis of hemoglobin, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters, and lipids.
Vitamin B5 is important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract and it helps the body use other vitamins more effectively. Pantothenic acid may help to manage stress from psychological strain, migraines, chronic fatigue syndrome, and smoking and alcohol cessation. Pantothenic acid has long been known to be essential for consistent antibody production, for the production of diphtheria toxoid and hemagglutinating antibodies, and for vaccinations against tetanus, typhoid, or Asian influenza. Adding calcium-D-pantothenate to cultured human skin cells given an artificial wound increased the number of migrating skin cells and their speed of migration, effects likely to accelerate wound healing. The body converts pantothenic acid into a chemical called pantethine. When taken as a supplement, pantethine appears to lower the amount of lipids in the blood. A person with high cholesterol may see their level of total of cholesterol–including LDL (“bad”) cholesterol–while at the same time increasing HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels.
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) dosage, intake, recommended daily allowance (RDA)
There’s no formal RDA for pantothenic acid, however, a lack of pantothenic acid is often associated with a lack of other B vitamins. Vitamin B5 is available alone as calcium panthothenate (8% calcium, 92% pantothenic acid). However, to avoid vitamin B imbalance, take a B-complex formula that includes Vitamin B5 or with other B vitamins. The normal daily allowance for vitamin B5 is about 4 to 7 mg per day for adults, which is normally well provided for in the diets of most people. Single ingredient tablets and capsules of pantothenic acid are available in doses ranging from 100 to 500 milligrams. Higher doses may be recommended by a qualified practitioner for the treatment of specific conditions.
Sources of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)
Common sources of pantothenic acid are cheese, corn, eggs, liver, meats, peanuts, peas soybeans, brewer’s yeast, and wheat germ. Because of its wide occurance, pantothenic acid deficiency is very rare unless specifically engineered for the purposes of biochemical investigations. The best sources of this vitamin are brewer’s yeast, corn, cauliflower, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, avocadolegumes, lentils, egg yolks, beef (especially organ meats such as liver and kidney), turkey, duck, chicken, milk, split peas, peanuts, soybeans, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, whole-grain breads and cereals, lobster, wheat germ, and salmon. Good natural sources of pantothenic acid include yeast, liver, eggs, wheatgerm, bran, peanuts, peas, meat, milk, poultry, whole grains, broccoli, mushrooms and sweet potatoes. Most vegetables and fruits contain small amounts. Heat, food processing techniques and canning destroy pantothenic acid.
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) deficiency
A deficiency of pantothenic acid in adults is virtually nonexistent, largely because it is present in so many foods. Pantothenic acid deficiencies may occur in people with alcoholism but are generally believed to be rare. Fatigue is probably the earliest and most common symptom of pantothenic acid deficiency, though it is an unlikely vitamin deficiency because of the availability of B5 in many foods, plus the fact that it is also produced by our intestinal bacteria. Vitamin B5 deficiency causes depression, personality changes, heart problems, increased risk of infections, fatigue, abdominal pains, sleep disturbances, numbness and altered sensation in the arms and legs, muscle weakness, cramps, increased sensitivity to insulin (the hormone that lowers blood glucose levels), decreased blood cholesterol levels and decreased potassium levels in the body.
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) overdose, toxicity, side effects
Pantothenic acid is not known to be toxic in humans. No serious side effects have been reported, even at intakes of up to 10,000 mg (10 grams) per day. Very large amounts of pantothenic acid (several grams per day) can cause diarrhea. Doses of 10 grams (10,000 mg) or more a day can result in diarrhea. No other adverse reactions to high doses have been reported. Pantothenic acid exhibits synergistic effects with vitamins C, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, and can improve utilization and may correct deficiency of these vitamins.